Table of content
A disciplinary case can normally be divided into three more or less separate phases:
- Reporting phase (discovery phase)
- Investigation phase (preliminary phase)
- Decision phase
Reporting phase (discovery phase)
The disciplinary rules apply to the conduct of all students at the University, to the extent that students’ conduct takes place under the auspices of the University, in situations which are comparable with this, or in situations where students are or ought to be aware that their conduct may influence the function of the University.
If it is suspected that the conduct of a student is in conflict with the disciplinary rules, the case must be reported to the line manager in charge of the relevant premises, the relevant activity or study programme. Generally, the head of studies is responsible for taking action if a student’s conduct is in conflict with the disciplinary rules. This responsibility may, however, have been delegated to another person, e.g. the chair of the study board.
Investigation phase (preliminary phase)
Upon receipt of a report, the line manager in charge carries out preliminary investigations of the case by obtaining the necessary documentation and by summoning the student to a personal interview to throw more light on the case. The student is entitled to bring along an observer. If such an interview is not possible, communication will take place in writing instead.
If the line manager in charge finds that the suspicion is confirmed, the case must be reported to the Rector if – and only if – it is found that the gravity of the case ought to result in the student being expelled from the University (see the advisory guidelines below). In all other cases, the line manager in charge decides the case. The reporting of the case must meet certain formal requirements concerning identification of the student reported and the available documentation pertaining to the case, and the reporting template prepared for this purpose is useful in this context.
The case is decided in accordance with the rules of administrative law, including in particular the requirements for consultation of the parties involved, grounds and appeal guidelines etc. If it is found to have been proved that the student has violated the disciplinary rules, one or more of the following sanctions may be imposed:
- Issue of a written or verbal warning against repeated violation of the rules.
- Expulsion from an examination if the examination rules are found to have been violated – which will entail that the student is registered as ‘not assessed’ for the examination in question.
- In cases of gross or repeated violation of the disciplinary rules, the Rector may also expel a student from the University. Expulsions may be temporary or permanent and entail that, during the expulsion period, the student is excluded from participating in any activities at the University, including classes and examinations. In case of temporary expulsion, the student will be registered as being on leave during the expulsion period.
Particularly where plagiarism is involved, the case will generally be assessed on the basis of the following guidelines:
- Gross plagiarism: If more than 5% of an examination paper is an exact copy or if more than 50% of an examination paper contains other forms of plagiarism, the student will normally be expelled from the University.
- Plagiarism: If less than 5% of the examination paper is an exact copy or if 5-50% of the examination paper contains other forms of plagiarism, the student will normally only be expelled from the examination.
- Simple plagiarism: If less than 5% of the examination paper contains forms of plagiarism other than an exact copy, a warning will normally be issued.
- Aggravating or extenuating circumstances may affect the assessment of the above. Cases of repeated violation will normally be deemed to constitute gross plagiarism.
In addition to the above sanctions, it may be decided to impose other special measures and/or sanctions – including postponement of an examination where exam cheating is suspected, if the matter cannot be clarified before the scheduled examination time.
1. Reporting phase (discovery phase)
1.1. The disciplinary rules prohibit students from displaying certain types of conduct in specific situations, with the concept ‘conduct’ covering both actions and omissions. Any violation of the rules will be sanctioned (punished) by imposing one or more of the sanctions provided for in the disciplinary rules.
Any suspected cases of violation of the disciplinary rules by students must must be reported to the line manager in charge.
Scope of the rules - Which categories of persons are covered by the rules?
1.2. The rules apply to all students, irrespective of the way in which they are enrolled. However, the conduct of PhD students in relation to scientific misconduct is subject to separate rules and guidelines.
1.3. Please note that the rules also apply to former students at the University; see item 1.9 for further details.
1.4. The rules also apply to applicants and their duty of disclosure regarding previously passed programme elements.
1.5. In the disciplinary rules and in these guidelines, the concept ‘student’ covers all persons covered by the descriptions in items 1.2-1.4.
When are students covered by the rules?
1.6. Student conduct is covered by the disciplinary rules if the conduct is displayed under the auspices of the University, in situations which are comparable with this, and in cases where students are or ought to be aware that their conduct may influence the function of the University.
Thus, student conduct is deemed to be covered by the disciplinary rules in the following cases:
- Where such conduct is displayed on the University’s premises or in relation to the University’s premises.
- Where such conduct is displayed in connection with activities which are conducted by or in cooperation with the University, or which replace such activities; examples of activities which are or may be covered are teaching, examinations, excursions, conferences, fairs etc.
- Where such conduct constitutes harassment or the like of the University’s students or staff.
- Generally, where such conduct is displayed in a manner or in a place in connection with which the student ought to be aware that the conduct might affect the (undisturbed) function of the University; an example may be acts of violence committed against persons even though the student is aware that the victims are fellow students or staff.
1.7. In case of changes in the student’s situation in the period from the student having displayed a certain conduct until the subsequent reporting or consideration of the case, or changes in the disciplinary rules or in regular practice, such changes are governed by the following provisions.
1.8. The disciplinary rules govern the conduct of students at the University. Where, in the intervening time, the person in question has stopped being a student at the University, that person is still covered by the rules, as the decisive factor is the status of the person at the time of the conduct.
1.9. The assessment of an actual case must always be based on the rules applying at the time of the conduct – even though, in principle, the decision is based on the currently applicable rules and must therefore also comply with the rules of procedure included in the currently applicable rules.
1.10. Finally, based on the rule of lenity, which is a common principle of criminal law, the rules and sanctions that may possibly be applied must be applied in the manner most favourable to the student. In practice, the most important consequence of this is that the student cannot be punished for conduct if, in the intervening time, such conduct has been decriminalised, or if the conduct was not criminalised at all pursuant to the rules in force at the time.
What types of conduct will cause sanctions to be imposed under the disciplinary rules?
1.11. Students must keep informed of and comply with the regulations (rules etc.) laid down by the University or applying to the University or its students. Such regulations may have been laid down at any level of the University organisation, or they may follow from legislation, including ministerial orders. Students must also obey instructions and orders issued by university staff and management concerning compliance with such regulations.
Any conduct conflicting with the above will cause sanctions to be imposed in accordance with the disciplinary rules. Failure to keep informed of relevant rules will only indirectly cause sanctions to be imposed, which means that students cannot generally excuse any violation of the rules by claiming ignorance of the rules, provided that the rules were accessible.
About the code of conduct and safety regulations in particular
1.12. Students must keep informed of and comply with the code of conduct and safety regulations laid down. In this connection, students must behave in a way which does not disturb the function of the University and must show consideration for fellow students and staff and for the University’s premises, buildings and property. This means, among other things, that loud behaviour, eating, drinking, smoking etc. will not be tolerated in manners which or in places where it may cause inconvenience to other people.
Normally, non-compliance by students with codes of conduct or safety regulations in spite of clear signage etc. will be deemed to constitute aggravating circumstances.
1.13. Students must also use IT and technical means with regard being had to good practice and in accordance with the rules on responsible use of IT. Violation of good practice is deemed, among other things, to include misuse of IT, data hacking, improper use of computer programs, illegal file sharing, breach of IT security or the use of Student Mail for private purposes that may affect Aalborg University’s reputation, including, for example, if the contents of emails sent from Student Mail are threatening in nature, concern criminal offences etc.
About examination rules and exam cheating in particular
1.14. Students must keep informed of and comply with the examination rules, and must not cause disturbance during an examination or commit actions or omissions which constitute or contribute to exam cheating. In this context, any kind of test is equivalent to an examination.
1.15. It is not possible to define the concept ‘exam cheating’ exhaustively. However, students are deemed to be guilty of exam cheating particularly in cases, among others, where:
An examinee, before or during an examination, gets help to solve an assignment without being entitled to such help, including by using unauthorised aids, falsified data or plagiarism. See chapter 4 regarding plagiarism.
An examinee, after the completion of an examination, attempts to influence the assessment or change the basis of the assessment, for example by continuing to work on the assignment after the set examination time has expired.
A student is or ought to be aware that his or her conduct contributes to exam cheating. Staff may also contribute to students’ exam cheating, but sanctions for such conduct are not imposed under the disciplinary rules for students. Instead, it may be decided to apply disciplinary measures under employment law.
A number of more specific examples of exam cheating are provided in section 6 of the disciplinary rules.
About academic discipline and ethical rules in science in particular
1.16. Students must keep informed of and comply with the guidelines on academic discipline and ethical rules in science applying to the academic field in question. This is of particular importance at master’s level. It is emphasised that these guidelines and rules may differ from one academic field to another.
The regulations and rules mentioned above include, for example, prohibition against falsification of documents issued by the University and theft/misuse of other people’s research findings or works. In addition, plagiarism which is not committed during an actual examination situation may be covered by the guidelines. See also chapter 4 regarding plagiarism.
Reporting to the line manager in charge
1.17. Suspected cases of violation of the disciplinary rules by students must be reported to the line manager in charge of the relevant premises, the relevant activity or study programme.
The line manager in charge will normally be the head of studies in connection with issues concerning teaching or examinations, the head of department in connection with issues concerning department premises, or the dean if the case does not fall under a specific head of studies or head of department. However, Study Service may also be deemed to be the unit responsible; for example in cases concerning admission and election to the governing bodies.
2. Investigation phase (preliminary phase)
2.1. On receipt of a report, the line manager in charge must conduct the preliminary investigations of the case. There is only one exception to this: The Rector or a person so authorised by the Rector may thus decide that the consideration of the case must be referred to the Rector altogether, if the circumstances of the case are found to be highly exceptional.
In connection with the investigation, all necessary documentation of the case must be collected. In addition, the student must be summoned to an interview to throw more light on the case. The student is entitled to bring along an observer for the interview. If it is not possible to summon the student to a personal interview, written communication will be used instead.
In certain cases, it is possible to expel a student from an examination while it is still in progress; see item 3.13 for further details. It is also possible to postpone an examination (see item 3.14) if a suspicion of exam cheating arises prior to the examination, but it is not possible to clarify the matter and decide the case before the time of the examination.
Reporting to the Rector
2.2. If, after clarification of the case, the line manager in charge finds that the report is justified, the case must be reported to the Rector if – and only if – it is found that such violations ought to result in the student being expelled from the University. In other cases, the line manager in charge decides the case.
Violation will only result in expulsion from the University in the event of repeated or gross violation of the regulations specified in the disciplinary rules. This means that a case must not be reported to the Rector solely because it involves a criminal offence, as the line manager in charge who is authorised to decide a case is also authorised to report criminal offences to the police.
2.3. If it is deemed necessary to report the case to the Rector, such reporting must take place without undue delay.
To ensure the Rector’s swift and proper consideration of the case, the report must be accompanied by a written account of the case, including information on the name and student number of each student reported, as well as a brief statement and all available documentation pertaining to the case. In case of exam cheating or violation of examination regulations being reported, the examination in question must be specified. In the event of repeated violation, this must also be stated.
If plagiarism is reported, a copy of the reported student’s examination paper must also be attached. The plagiarised text in the paper must be marked with clear reference to the sources from which the plagiarised text has been taken. The plagiarised text or any other plagiarised material must also be marked in an attached copy of the source text. A report based on an electronic scanning of the plagiarised text may make up this documentation. In such case, however, an assessment must be made of what specifically is deemed to constitute plagiarism compared with what the report indicates as being direct plagiarism (quality assurance of the plagiarism report).
If the study programme or the relevant study activity is offered as a programme or activity taught in English, and if just one of the students reported is not familiar with Danish, the report and the accompanying written account must be in English.
The standard template for reporting cases concerning exam cheating to the Rector is useful for this purpose. Other forms of reporting may also be used as long as the requirements mentioned above are met.
2.4. If the report fails to meet the above requirements, the line manager in charge will be ordered to meet the requirements, unless the Rector or the person authorised by the Rector to consider the case determines that this is not expedient in the specific case.
3. Decision phase
Who decides the case?
3.1. The Rector decides the case if the case was reported to the Rector, or if the Rector has decided to take over the consideration of the case altogether due to exceptional circumstances. In all other cases, the line manager in charge decides the case. If it is certain that a case reported cannot or will not result in a student being expelled from the University, the case will normally be referred back to the line manager in charge for consideration.
In the following, the person who decides the case will be referred to as the ‘competent authority’.
What are the requirements for the decision?
3.2. Sanctions in accordance with the disciplinary rules can only be imposed on a student if the competent authority finds that it has been proved that the student has in actual fact displayed conduct which is covered by the disciplinary rules and which is in conflict with the rules.
3.3. Moreover, the consideration of the case and the decision must comply with the requirements deriving from administrative law, including the following in particular:
- Consultation of parties involved: If the student is deemed not to be aware that the competent authority holds certain information on the facts of the case, no decision may be made until such information has been disclosed to the student and the student has been allowed an opportunity to prepare a statement within a time limit of at least one week. This only applies, however, if the information is to the detriment of the student and of considerable significance to the determination of the case. In addition, there are certain exceptions to the obligation to carry out consultation of parties involved; see section 19 of the Danish Public Administration Act (Forvaltningsloven).
- Grounds: If sanctions are imposed on the student and the decision is provided in writing, the grounds for the decision must be stated. The grounds must include a) reference to section 13 (see sections 14-18) of the disciplinary rules, b) a statement of the main considerations underlying the actual decision, and c) a brief account of the information on the facts of the case considered of considerable significance to the decision made. If the decision is not provided in writing, the student may within a time limit of 14 days demand that the grounds for the decision be provided in writing.
- Appeal guidelines: If sanctions are imposed on the student, appeal guidelines must be provided, specifying the appellate body and describing the appeals procedure, including any time limit. An example of appeal guidelines is provided under item 5.1. These are updated in the University’s standardised appeals guidelines (available in the AAU Handbook).
- Good administrative practice: Under this heading, it is emphasised that, during the entire consideration of the case, the administration must treat the student in a polite and professional manner.
Sanctions and special measures
3.4. If it is found that the disciplinary rules have been violated, the competent authority may impose the following sanctions:
- Issue of a written or verbal warning against repeated violation of the rules.
- In the event of misuse of the University’s IT systems, the student’s right to use these may be completely or partially suspended.
- Expulsion from an examination.
Moreover, the Rector may decide to expel the student from the University, including cancelling the student’s admission to or grades from courses in which the student has participated without being entitled to do so, if the case concerns an applicant’s provision of incomplete or incorrect Information in connection with the application for admission.
When deciding whether and to which extent a given sanction is to be imposed on a student, the concrete damaging effect of the violation for the University must be considered, including society’s confidence in the University’s examinations and the preservation of the respect for the work performed by the University. In addition, account must be taken of whether any prior warnings have been issued, whether there is a risk of repeated violation and whether the University’s interests can be sufficiently safeguarded by imposing a less severe sanction (section 19 of the disciplinary rules).
3.5. In addition to the above sanctions, it may be decided to impose the following special measures and/or sanctions:
- Reporting to the police in case of possible criminal offences.
- Expulsion from an examination in progress, if it is established with certainty that exam cheating or disturbing behaviour is going on.
- Postponement of an examination if a suspicion of exam cheating in connection with a paper to be used during an examination arises before the time of the examination, but where it is not possible to decide the case before the scheduled examination time.
- Denial of supervision in connection with the rewriting of an examination paper in which plagiarism was found.
About the issue of warnings in particular
3.6. If it is found that the disciplinary rules have been violated, the competent authority may, and must always as a minimum, issue a written or verbal warning against repeated violation of the rules.
The issue of a warning has the additional effect that, in the event of repeated violation of the disciplinary rules, the student can expect a more severe sanction to be imposed than would otherwise be the case. It is recommended that the warning be issued in writing in order to be able to satisfy the burden of proof in connection with any repeated violation.
About expulsion from an examination in particular
3.7. Expulsion from an examination may take place in cases of exam cheating or violation of examination rules in general.
The expulsion may be with prospective or retrospective effect and means that the student has used an examination attempt but his or her examination effort will not be assessed, or a previously awarded assessment will be cancelled. In practice, this means that the student will be registered as ‘not assessed’ for the examination in question in STADS (Studies Administration System).
About expulsion from the University in particular
3.8. Expulsion from the University may take place in case of gross or repeated violation of the regulations specified or included in the disciplinary rules.
Expulsions may be temporary or permanent and entail that, during the expulsion period, the student is excluded from participating in any activities at the University, including classes and examinations. Any tuition fees covering the expulsion period will not be refunded to or credited to the account of an expelled student.
3.9. In case of temporary expulsion, the student will be registered as being on leave during the expulsion period. Unless the student has disenrolled from the University in the meantime, the student will automatically be registered as an active student after the expiry of the expulsion period.
The expulsion will normally be for one or two semesters. In the exceptional case that the expulsion period does not coincide with the semester period, it will be possible for the student, upon expiry of the expulsion period, to participate in examinations even though the student was registered as being on leave during that semester.
3.10. In case of permanent expulsion from the University, the student will be disenrolled from the University, and the student must return his or her student card. In addition, the expulsion entails that the student will be permanently excluded from all activities at the University and cannot be admitted to or enrolled on any study programme or parts thereof at the University. Upon application, the Rector may permit a permanently expelled student to be re-admitted or re-enrolled, on condition, however, that a minimum of five years have elapsed since the decision, and provided that the student is able to provide a convincing statement of his or her ability to comply with the disciplinary rules in future.
Special measures and sanctions
Reporting to the police
3.11. The competent authority may report criminal offences to the police. Such reporting does not constitute a sanction imposed by the University, not even if the reporting is made on behalf of the University. It is thus only a matter of reporting the case to the police for further investigation, as it is assumed that, in addition to constituting a violation of the University’s body of rules, the case also constitutes a violation of criminal law rules.
The above does not, of course, prevent a person who has been the victim of a criminal offence from reporting this personally to the police – even if the victim is employed at the University. Such reporting is then not made on behalf of the University.
3.12. An administrative authority must consider a case without undue delay. Thus, the disciplinary case will not be suspended while the police are investigating the case. The fact that the student may risk sanctions according to two bodies of rules does also not affect the decision or the choice of a possible sanction.
Expulsion from an examination in progress
3.13. If the case concerns an examination in progress, and it is established with certainty that exam cheating or disturbing behaviour is going on, the head of studies, a person authorised by the head of studies or the examiners jointly may expel the student from the examination while it is still in progress. In such cases, the justification of the expulsion will be assessed in connection with the subsequent decision in the case.
Postponement of an examination
3.14. If the case concerns exam cheating, including plagiarism, in connection with a paper to be used during an examination, the head of studies postpones the examination if the matter cannot be clarified before the scheduled examination time. However, only the examination regarding which exam cheating is suspected may be postponed. This means that the student may participate in other examinations until a decision is made in the case.
Denial of supervision
3.15. If it is found that plagiarism or attempted plagiarism has taken place, no supervision will be offered to the student in connection with the rewriting of the plagiarised text. The head of studies may, however, grant an exemption from this provision in case of extenuating circumstances.
4. About plagiarism and sanctions thereof in particular
4.1. The concept ‘plagiarism’ is normally used in connection with text, and the following is based on this understanding. The fact is, however, that more or less any artificial product may be plagiarised, including drawings, figures, models, sculptures, pieces of music, music notes etc., and such plagiarism is also covered by the disciplinary rules.
Plagiarism is deemed to constitute exam cheating if found in an examination paper submitted by the student for use in connection with an examination, i.e. if the paper is submitted for assessment, or if an examination is to be based on the paper. If plagiarism takes place outside an actual examination situation, such plagiarism will, however, often be deemed to constitute violation of the guidelines on academic discipline and ethical rules in science applying to the academic field in question.
What is deemed to be plagiarism?
4.2. As a practical main rule, plagiarism exists if, in an examination paper, a student attempts to give the impression that he or she is the originator of an idea, a text, layout etc., even though the originator is in fact someone else.
More specifically, plagiarism exists if an examination paper in full or in part appears to have been produced by the student(s) personally, even though the examination paper
- contains an identical or almost identical reproduction of the wordings or works of other authors, without such reproduction being marked by quotation marks, italics, indentation or other clear indication with source reference, including any page numbers etc. (copy),
- contains long passages with a wording which is so close to that of another work or similar wording etc. that comparison shows that those passages could not have been written without the use of the other work (paraphrasing etc.),
- contains the use of the wordings or ideas of other authors’ without such other authors being duly credited (other plagiarism), or
- reuses text and/or central ideas from the examinee’s own previously assessed or published works without complying with items 1) and 3) above (self-plagiarising).
Students are thus entitled to use and quote from the works of other authors – provided that they give due credit to the works and authors used and clearly mark quotations etc.
4.3. The student must ensure that products prepared by that student comply with the applicable requirements – including the obligation to give due credit to other works and authors. If the examination paper has been prepared by a group, the group is deemed to be jointly responsible for the paper complying with the rules on source management. If there is clear evidence that only one or some of the members of a group are responsible for the plagiarism, the specific disciplinary case will then normally only be pursued for these students and thus not the other members of the group.
In principle, there is thus no triviality limit to plagiarism. In practice, however, reality differs from this: Firstly, not every resemblance between the student’s product and the work of someone else will be deemed to be plagiarism. For example, an individual short sentence will not normally in itself be deemed to be plagiarism. Moreover, certain phrases may for example be perfectly normal phrases in the academic field in question or be so obvious in the concrete context that the coincidence of the texts must be deemed to be insignificant. And secondly, the case may be one of ordinary ‘messy practice’ regarding sources, which will normally be deemed to be the case if, in a full project, only a few lines are found to have been copied without proper source referencing.
Assessment of the gravity of plagiarism discovered
4.4. When determining which sanction to impose in connection with plagiarism discovered, the gravity of the plagiarism is of crucial importance. The assessment thereof must be based on the following advisory guidelines.
The assessment should be based on the extent of the plagiarism (calculated as a percentage of the product submitted) and on the type of plagiarism, i.e. the way in which the plagiarism was carried out (see item 4.2): If the student has used several types of plagiarism, an overall assessment should be made:
Which sanction should be imposed in connection with plagiarism discovered?
4.5. The sanction to be imposed depends on when and under what circumstances the plagiarism is discovered.
Plagiarism discovered outside an examination situation
4.6. If plagiarism is discovered outside an actual examination situation, it will often be considered a violation of the guidelines on academic discipline. This does not mean, however, that the plagiarism will cause sanctions as severe as if it had been discovered in an examination situation.
If plagiarism is discovered during supervision, action must be taken against all types of plagiarism, no matter how limited. In this connection it must be made clear to the student that plagiarism will not be tolerated, and that the plagiarised text must be rewritten. If, in spite of the supervisor’s reprimand, plagiarism is discovered after submission, this will be deemed to constitute an aggravating circumstance.
Plagiarism discovered after submission of an examination paper
4.7. If plagiarism is discovered in an examination paper which has been submitted or has been used during an examination, the following sanctions will be imposed on the student:
- In case of gross plagiarism: The Rector will expel the student from the University as well as from the examination in question and will warn the student against repeated violation of the disciplinary rules. The case must therefore be reported to the Rector, and the report must comply with certain formal requirements; see item 2.3. Rewriting of the plagiarised text will be without supervision, unless an exemption is granted due to extenuating circumstances.
- In case of plagiarism: The student will be expelled from the examination in question and will receive a warning against repeated violation. The head of studies will also summon the student to a serious talk. Rewriting of the plagiarised text will be without supervision, unless an exemption is granted due to extenuating circumstances.
- In case of simple plagiarism: The student will receive a warning against repeated violation of the disciplinary rules
5.1. Decisions to impose sanctions on a student may be appealed by the student. The decision may be appealed to the Danish Agency for Science and Higher Education if the appeal concerns legal issues. This means that the Agency will only determine whether a case has been considered in accordance with applicable law, including general principles of administrative law. The Agency thus cannot determine academic issues or assessments in a case unless these are in contravention of the legal framework.
Example of appeal guidelines:
This decision may be appealed to the Danish Agency for Science and Higher Education if the appeal concerns legal issues, in other words whether the case is processed according to current law and other administrative law. The appeal must be written and submitted to email email@example.com. You should not complain within any given deadline. If the decision is maintained, the university shall issue a statement upon which you shall be given the opportunity to comment within a deadline of at least one week. Your appeal is then forwarded to the Agency along with the statement and any comments you might have.
The guidelines have been laid down in accordance with section 21(2) of Aalborg University’s disciplinary rules, and the first version of the guidelines were laid down on 16 February 2009.
These guidelines hereby replace the previous version thereof:
Aalborg University, 1 March 2018
Per Michael Johansen / Lone Vestergaard
Rector Head of Study Service
These guidelines have been prepared pursuant to section 21(2) of the Rules regarding disciplinary measures for students at Aalborg University (the disciplinary rules).
The purpose of the guidelines is to clarify and elaborate on the rules for the benefit of the users of the rules (the line manager in charge) and students at Aalborg University (the ‘University’). A summary is provided by way of introduction.
The guidelines have been laid down by the Rector, but responsibility for maintaining and updating the guidelines rests with Study Service.
In the event of questions regarding the guidelines, the Secretariat of Study Service may be contacted at: